Advent 2019 part 13, Datomic Test Factories

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

When I started consulting for Nextjournal I helped them out a lot with tooling and testing. Their data model is fairly complex, which made it hard to do setup in tests. I created a factory based approach for them, which has served the team well ever since.

First some preliminaries. At Nextjournal we’re big fans of Datomic, and so naturally we have a Datomic connection as part of the Integrant system map.

 {:default {:uri #or[#env JOURNAL_DATOMIC_URI "datomic:mem://nextjournal_dev"]}
  :prod    {:uri #or[#env JOURNAL_DATOMIC_URI #secret "journal/datomic/uri"]
            :com.nextjournal.journal.system.vault/service #integrant/ref[:com.nextjournal.journal.system.vault/service]}
  :test    {:uri        "datomic:mem://nextjournal_test"
            :delete-db? true}}}

For testing we use a dynamic var *test-system*. You could just set up a system and pass it around, but in this case a dynamic var is really convenient, since this allows you to set it up in a fixture, and test helper functions can access the system directly.

(ns ns com.nextjournal.journal.test-system)

(def ^:dynamic *test-system*)

;; REPL use only
(defn start! [] ,,,)
(defn stop! [] ,,,)

(defn wrap-system [test]
  (binding [*test-system* (ig/init! config)]
        (ig/halt! *test-system*)))))

;; in a test namespace:
;; (use-fixtures :each test-system/wrap-system)

With that we can make helpers to quickly get the Datomic connection, get a database value, or do a query. This already takes a lot of clutter out of tests.

(defn conn []
  (:com.nextjournal.journal.system/datomic-conn *test-system*))

(defn db []
  (datomic/db (conn)))

(defn q [query & args]
  (apply datomic/q query (db) args))

To get test data into the database we have this handy transact! utility. It transacts whatever transaction data you give it, and returns a map with resolved temp-ids. If it finds any temp-ids that end in "-id", then it will also return a (datomic/entity ,,,) for that id.

(defn transact*!
  "Like `transact!` but takes the connection explicitly"
  [conn & tx-datas]
  (let [tx-data  (vec (mapcat #(if (map? %) [%] %) tx-datas))
        report   @(datomic/transact conn tx-data)
        db-after (:db-after report)
        tempids  (:tempids report)
        ids      (into {} (keep (fn [{id :db/id}]
                                  (when (string? id)
                                    [(keyword id)
                                     (datomic/resolve-tempid db-after tempids id)]))
    (reduce-kv (fn [ids kid id]
                 (let [kidn (name kid)]
                   (if (str/ends-with? kidn "-id")
                     (let [k (keyword (str/replace kidn #"-id$" ""))
                           e (datomic/entity db-after id)]
                       (assoc ids k e))

(defn transact!
  "Transact data and resolve temp-ids.

  Calls datomic/transact on the current connection in *system*, and :db/id in
  the input that are strings are resolved as tempids, keywordified, and returned
  as a map. On top of that any keys ending in \"-id\" are also resolved as
  entities, dropping the -id suffix.

  Each argument can be either a map or a vector of maps.

  See also: defactory.
  [& tx-datas]
  (apply transact*! (conn) tx-datas))

So for example say I’m creating an article and a person entity for use in my test, this will look something like this.

(let [{:keys [article article-id
              person person-id]}
      (transact! {:db/id "article-id" :article/change 1234}
                 {:db/id "person-id" :person/email ""})]
  article    ;;=> {:db/id 158953 ,,,}
  article-id ;;=> 158953
  person     ;;=> {:db/id 158954 ,,,}
  article-id ;;=> 158954


I can destructure whatever I need out of that. Most of the time it’s most convenient to work with the entity maps, but if you need the ids instead to pass on to another function then you can access those directly.

With all of that set up it’s time for the grand finale: defactory!

(defmacro defactory
  "Define a datomic factory helper. This should look like a function which takes a
  single argument (an options map), and returns datomic transaction data, either
  a single map or a vector of maps.

  Use strings for temp-ids if possible.

  This will create a regular function that just returns that data, but also a
  method ending in a bang which will transact the tx-data against the
  *test-system*, and return a map of resolved temp-ids."
  [name & [a1 a2 & rst :as args]]
  (let [[docstring arglist body]
        (if (string? a1)
          [a1 a2 rst]
          ["Factory function" a1 (next args)])]
       (defn ~name ~docstring [& ~arglist]
         (let [res# ~@body]
           (if (map? res#)
             [(dissoc res# :suffix)]
             (mapv #(dissoc % :suffix) res#))))

       (defn ~(symbol (str name "!")) ~docstring
         [& [opts#]]
         (let [conn# (:datomic/conn opts# (conn))
               opts# (dissoc opts# :datomic/conn)]
           (transact*! conn# (~name opts#)))))))

This is already a hairy macro, I guess you don’t always want to see how the sausage gets made, but in usage it’s really nice.

(ns com.nextjournal.journal.test-factories)

(defactory profile
  "Creates a profile entity with random handle. Options are merged in directly.
  Provides a \"profile-id\" tempid."
  (merge #:profile
         {:db/id  "profile-id"
          :handle (rand-username)
          :name   "Jonny Zimmerman"}

(defactory person
  "Creates a person entity. Options are merged in directly. The
  `:person/password` key is treated special, it is converted to a password
  digest and stored as such. Expects a \"profile-id\" temp-id in the same
  Provides a \"person-id\" tempid."
  (merge #:person
         {:db/id   "person-id"
          :profile "profile-id"
          :email   (rand-email)}
         (cond-> opts
           (:person/password opts)
           (-> (dissoc :person/password)
               (assoc :person/password-digest
                 (password/encrypt (:person/password opts)))))))

This has created four functions: profile, profile!, person, and person!. The versions without a bang just return transaction data.

;;=> {:db/id "person-id", :profile/handle "jonny7", :profile/name "Jonny Zimmerman"}

(profile {:profile/name "Arne Brasseur" :profile/website ""})
;;=> {:db/id "person-id", :profile/handle "jonny7", :profile/name "Arne Brasseur" :profile/website ""}

(let [{:keys [person]} (transact! (person) (profile))]
  (-> person :person/profile :profile/handle) ;;=> "marcus123"

The version with a bang immediately call transact!.

(let [{:keys [profile]} (profile!)]
  (profile :profile/handle) ;;=> "marcus123"

We have a bit more logic in the factories to make it easy to create multiple entities of the same type in a single transaction, in that case they will get temp-ids like article-1-id, so you can destructure them as {:keys [article-1 article-2]}.

Is this API perfect? Far from it, there are definitely some things I would reconsider if I did a second iteration of this. It’s also not the kind of code I would write for regular, non-test use. It already starts to smell a little of “magic”, the kind that as a recovering Rubyist I have learned to avoid. Pulling up database connections from behind the covers, checking for the type of arguments to have a more flexible interface, transacting things “automatically”… these are things Clojure has taught me to avoid, generally.

But in this case the magic does serve a higher purpose, it is taking the friction out of writing unit tests, and anything that helps and encourages people to test their code is a win in my book. And because it takes a lot of clutter and boilerplate out of the tests they start to better convey intention. Besides being there to test stuff tests also act as a form of documentation. They show examples of how APIs can be used, and in the case of a failure they point at the scenario that is causing trouble. So all in all we think these factories are a win.

Hi, my name is Arne (aka @plexus) and I consult companies and teams about application architecture, development process, tooling and testing. I collaborate with other talented people under the banner Gaiwan. If you like to have a chat about how we could help you with your project then please get in touch!

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Advent 2019 part 10, Hillcharts with Firebase and Shadow-cljs

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

Recently I led a workshop for a client to help them improve their development process, and we talked a lot about Shape Up, a book released by Basecamp earlier this year that talks about their process. You can read it for free on-line, and I can very much recommend doing so. It’s not a long read and there are a ton of good ideas in there.

One of these ideas has also become a feature in Basecamp, namely hill charts. These provide a great way to communicate what stage a piece of work is in. Are you still going uphill, figuring things out and discovering new work, or are you going downhill, where it’s mostly clear what things will look like, and you’re just executing what you discovered?

Advent 2019 part 9, Dynamic Vars in ClojureScript

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

Clojure has this great feature called Dynamic Vars, it lets you create variables which can be dynamically bound, rather than lexically. Lexical (from Ancient Greek λέξις (léxis) word) in this case means “according to how it is written”. let bindings for instance are lexical.

(defn hello [x]
  (str "hello " x))

(defn greetings []
  (str "greetings" foo)) ;; *error*

(let [foo 123]
  (hello foo)

Advent 2019 part 8, Everything is (not) a pipe

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

I’ve always been a big UNIX fan. I can hold my own in a shell script, and I really like the philosophy of simple tools working on a uniform IO abstraction. Uniform abstractions are a huge enabler in heterogenous systems. Just think of Uniform Resource Locators and Identifier (URLs/URIs), one of the cornerstones of the web as we know it.

Unfortunately since coming to Clojure I feel like I’ve lost of some of that power. I’m usually developing against a Clojure process running inside (or at least connected to) my trusty editor, and the terminal plays second fiddle. How do I pipe things into or out of that?

Advent 2019 part 7, Do that doto

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

doto is a bit of an oddball in the Clojure repertoire, because Clojure is a functional language that emphasizes pure functions and immutabilty, and doto only makes sense when dealing with side effects.

To recap, doto takes a value and a number of function or method call forms. It executes each form, passing the value in as the first argument. At the end of the ride it returns the original value.

Advent 2019 part 6, A small idiom

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

As an avid tea drinker I’ve been poring (pouring?) over this catalog of teas.

(def teas [{:name "Dongding"
            :type :oolong}
           {:name "Longjing"
            :type :green}
           {:name "Baozhong"
            :type :oolong}
           {:name "Taiwan no. 18"
            :type :black}
           {:name "Dayuling"
            :type :oolong}
           {:name "Biluochun"
            :type :green}])

Advent 2019 part 5, Clojure in the shell

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

I already showed you netcat, and how it combines perfectly with socket REPLs. But what if all you have is an nREPL connection? Then you use rep

$ rep '('
:reloading ()

Advent 2019 part 4, A useful idiom

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

Here’s a little Clojure idiom that never fails to bring me joy.

(into {} (map (juxt key val)) m)

Advent 2019 part 3, `every-pred` and `some-fn`

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

Ah clojure.core, it’s like an all you can eat hot-pot. Just when you think you’ve scooped up all it has to offer, you discover another small but delicious delicacy floating in the spicy broth.

In exactly the same way I recently became aware of two functions that until now had only existed on the periphery of my awareness. I’ve since enjoyed using them on several occasions, and keep finding uses for them.

Advent 2019 part 2, Piping hot network sockets with Netcat

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

Part of what I want to do in this series is simply point at some of the useful tools and libraries I discovered in the past year. I’ve adopted a few tools for doing network stuff on the command line which I’ll show you in another post. First though we’ll look at a classic: netcat!

I’ve been using netcat for years, it’s such a great tool. It simply sets up a TCP connection and connects it to STDIN/STDOUT. Pretty straightforward. I’ve been using it more and more though because of Clojure’s socket REPL.

Advent 2019 part 1, Clojure Vocab: to Reify

This post is part of Advent of Parens 2019, my attempt to publish one blog post a day during the 24 days of the advent.

An interesting aspect of the Clojure community, for better or for worse, is that it forms a kind of linguistic bubble. We use certain words that aren’t particularly common in daily speech, like “accretion”, or use innocuous little words to refer to something very specific. Even a simple word like “simple” is no longer that simple.

We can thank Rich Hickey for this. He seems to care a great deal about language, and is very careful in picking the words he uses in his code, documentation, and in his talks.

Advent of Parens 2019

Ah, the advent, the four weeks leading up to Christmas. That period of glühwein and office year-end parties.

The last couple of years I’ve taken part in the Advent of Code, a series of programming puzzles posted daily. They’re generally fun to do and wrapped in a nice narrative. They also as the days progress start taking up way too much of my time, so this year I won’t be partaking in Advent of Code, instead I’m trying something new.

From the first to the 24th of December I challenge myself to write a single small blog post every day. If my friend Sarah Mirk can do a daily zine for a whole year, surely I can muster a few daily paragraphs for four weeks.

Lambda Island Streaming Live this Thursday and Friday

We are definitely back from holidays, and to demonstrate that we’re not just doing one but two live stream events!

Felipe and Arne pairing

Thursday 5 September, 13:00 to 15:00 UTC

Fork This Conference

Last weekend Heart of Clojure took place in Leuven, Belgium. As one of the core organizers it was extremely gratifying to see this event come to life. We started with a vision of a particular type of event we wanted to create, and I feel like we delivered on all fronts.

For an impression of what it was like you can check out Malwine’s comic summary, or Manuel’s blog post.

It seems people had a good time, and a lot of people are already asking about the next edition. However we don’t intend to make this a yearly recurring conference. We might be back in two years, maybe with another Heart of Clojure, maybe with something else. We need to think about that.

Advice to My Younger Self

When I was 16 I was visited by a man who said he had come from the future. He had traveled twenty years back to 1999 to sit down with me and have a chat.

We talked for an hour or so, and in the end he gave me a few pieces of advice. I have lived by these and they have served me well, and now I dispense this advice to you.

Become allergic to The Churn

ClojureScript logging with goog.log

This post explores goog.log, and builds an idiomatic ClojureScript wrapper, with support for cljs-devtools, cross-platform logging (by being API-compatible with Pedestal Log), and logging in production.

This deep dive into GCL’s logging functionality was inspired by work done with Nextjournal, whose support greatly helped in putting this library together.

Clojure’s standard library isn’t as “batteries included” as, say, Python. This is because Clojure and ClojureScript are hosted languages. They rely on a host platform to provide the lower level runtime functionality, which also allows them to tap into the host language’s standard library and ecosystem. That’s your batteries right there.

The Art of Tree Shaping with Clojure Zippers

This is a talk I did for the “Den of Clojure” meetup in Denver, Colorado. Enjoy!

Captions (subtitles) are available, and you can find the transcript below, as well as slides over here.

For comments and discussion please refer to this post on r/Clojure.

Test Wars: A New Hope

Yesterday was the first day for me on a new job, thanks to Clojurists Together I will be able to dedicate the coming three months to improving Kaocha, a next generation test runner for Clojure.

A number of projects applied for grants this quarter, some much more established than Kaocha. Clojurists Together has been asking people through their surveys if it would be cool to also fund “speculative” projects, and it seems people agreed.

I am extremely grateful for this opportunity. I hope to demonstrate in the coming months that Kaocha holds a lot of potential, and to deliver some of that potential in the form of a tool people love to use.

Two Years of Lambda Island, A Healthy Pace and Things to Come

It’s been just over two years since Lambda Island first launched, and just like last year I’d like to give you all an update about what’s been happening, where we are, and where things are going.

To recap: the first year was rough. I’d been self-employed for nearly a decade, but I’d always done stable contracting work, which provided a steady stream of income, and made it easy for me to unplug at the end of the day.

Lambda Island was, as the Dutch expression goes, “a different pair of sleeves”. I really underestimated what switching to a one-man product business in a niche market would mean, and within months I was struggling with symptoms of burnout, so most of year one was characterised by trying to keep things going and stay afloat financially, while looking after myself and trying to get back to a good place, physically and mentally.

D3 and ClojureScript

This is a guest post by Joanne Cheng (twitter), a freelance software engineer and visualization consultant based in Denver, Colorado. She has taught workshops and spoken at conferences about visualizing data with D3. Turns out ClojureScript and D3 are a great fit, in this post she’ll show you how to create your own visualization using the power of D3 and the elegance of ClojureScript.

I use D3.js for drawing custom data visualizations. I love using the library, but I wanted to try one of the several compile to JavaScript options, and I decided to look into ClojureScript. It ended up working out well for me, so I’m going to show you how I created a D3.js visualization using ClojureScript!

What we’re visualizing

Reloading Woes

Update: seems Stuart Sierra’s blog post has dropped off the internet. I’ve updated the link to refer to the Wayback Machine’s version instead.

Setting the Stage

When doing client work I put a lot of emphasis on tooling and workflow. By coaching people on their workflow, and by making sure the tooling is there to support it, a team can become many times more effective and productive.

The Bare Minimum, or Making Mayonnaise with Clojure

Making Mayonnaise

Imagine you have a grandfather who’s great at making mayonnaise. He’s been making mayonnaise since before the war, and the result is truly excellent. What’s more, he does this with a good old fashioned whisk. He’s kept his right arm in shape throughout decades just by beating those eggs and oil and vinegar.

Now he’s bought himself a handheld electric mixer after hearing his friend rave about hers, but after a few tries he gives up and goes back to his whisk. He says he just can’t get the same result. This seems slightly odd, so the next time you go over you ask him to show you how he uses the mixer.

Clojure Gotchas: "contains?" and Associative Collections

When learning a programming language we rarely read the reference documentation front to back. Instead someone might follow some tutorials, and look at sample code, until they’re confident enough to start a little project for practice.

From that point on the learning process is largely “just in time”, looking up exactly the things you need to perform the task at hand. As this goes on you might start to recognize some patterns, some internal logic that allows you to “intuit” how one part of the language works, based on experience with another part.

Developing this “intuition” — understanding this internal logic — is key to using a language effectively, but occasionally our intuition will be off. Some things are simply not obvious, unless someone has explained them to us. In this post I will look at something that frequently trips people up, and attempt to explain the underlying reasoning.

Dates in Clojure: Making Sense of the Mess

Update 2018-11-27: while most of this article is still relevant, I no longer recommend using JodaTime as the main date/time representation for new projects. Even existing projects that aren’t too invested in JodaTime/clj-time should consider migrating to java.time and across the board.

Update 2 2019-05-29: Also check out the talk Cross Platform DateTime Awesomeness by Henry Widd, given at Clojure/north 2019

You can always count on human culture to make programming messy. To find out if a person is a programmer just have them say “encodings” or “timezones” and watch their face.

Clojure Gotchas: Surrogate Pairs

tl;dr: both Java and JavaScript have trouble dealing with unicode characters from Supplementary Planes, like emoji 😱💣.

Today I started working on the next feature of lambdaisland/uri, URI normalization. I worked test-first, you’ll get to see how that went in the next Lambda Island episode.

One of the design goals for this library is to have 100% parity between Clojure and ClojureScript. Learn once, use anywhere. The code is all written in .cljc files, so it can be treated as either Clojure or ClojureScript. Only where necessary am I using a small amount of reader conditionals.

Simple and Happy; is Clojure dying, and what has Ruby got to do with it?

The past week or so a lot of discussion and introspection has been happening in the Clojure community. Eric Normand responded to my one year Lambda Island post with some reflections on the size and growth of the community.

And then Zack Maril lamented on Twitter: “I’m calling it, clojure’s dying more than it is growing”. This sparked a mega-thread, which was still raging four days later. A parallel discussion thread formed on Reddit. Someone asked if their were any Clojure failure stories. They were pointed at this talk from RubyConf 2016, which seemed to hit a lot of people right in the feels, and sparked a subthread with a life of its own.

Meanwhile Ray, one of the hosts of the defn podcast reacted to the original tweet: “I’m calling it: Clojure is alive and well with excellent defaults for productive and sustainable software development.” This sparked another big thread.

Loading Clojure Libraries Directly From Github

Did you ever fix a bug in an open source library, and then had to wait until the maintainer released an updated version?

It’s happened to me many times, the latest one being Toucan. I had run into a limitation, and found out that there was already an open ticket. It wasn’t a big change so I decided to dive in and address it. Just a little yak shave so I could get on with my life.

Now this pull request needs to be reviewed, and merged, and eventually be released to Clojars, but ain’t nobody got time for that stuff. No sir-ee.

Lambda Island Turns One, The Story of a Rocky Ride

One year ago to date I launched Lambda Island, a service that offers high quality video tutorials on web development with Clojure and ClojureScript. It’s been quite a ride. In this post I want to look back at the past year, provide some insight into how this experience has been for me, and give you a glimpse of what the future has in store.

This story really starts in December 2015. After three years of doing contract work for Ticketsolve I decided it was time for a change. I have been self-employed for many years, but I knew that sooner or later I wanted to try my hand at selling a product, rather than selling my time.

In January and February I took some time for soul-searching, and recharging. I went to speak at RubyConf Australia, and got to hang out with some old friends around Australia and New Zealand. Once back in Berlin I got busy creating Lambda Island.

Writing Node.js scripts with ClojureScript

In the two most recent  Lambda Island episodes I covered in-depth how to create command line utilities based on Lumo, how to combine them with third party libraries, and how to deploy them to

However there’s a different way to create tools with ClojureScript and distribute them through NPM, without relying on Lumo. In this blog post I want to quickly demostrate how to do just that.

To recap, Lumo is a ClojureScript environment based on Node.js, using bootstrapped (self-hosted) ClojureScript. This means the ClojureScript compiler, which is written in Clojure and runs on the JVM, is used to compile itself to JavaScript. This way the JVM is no longer needed, all you need is a JavaScript runtime to compile and run ClojureScript code, which in this case is provided by Node.js. On top of that Lumo uses nexe, so Lumo can be distributed as a single compact and fast executable binary.

Announcing lambdaisland/uri 1.0.0

I just released lambdaisland/uri, a pure Clojure/ClojureScript URI library. It is available on Github and Clojars.

This is a small piece of the code base that powers It’s inspired by Ruby’s Addressable::URI, the most solid URI implementation I’ve seen to date, although it only offers a small part of the functionality that library offers.

It’s written in pure Clojure/ClojureScript, with only minimal use of .cljc reader conditionals to smooth over differences in regular expression syntax, and differences in core protocols. It does not rely on any URI functionality offered by the host, such as, so it’s usable across all current and future Clojure implementations (Clojure, ClojureScript, ClojureCLR).

re-frame Subscriptions Got Even Better

Up until recently, to use re-frame subscriptions in Reagent views, you had to use a form-2 component.

A form-2 component is a function that returns another function, which does the actual rendering of the component to hiccup. In contrast, a form-1 component renders the hiccup directly.

;; form-1
(defn todo-item [todo]
   [todo-checkbox (:id todo) (:completed todo)]
   [:label {:unselectable "on"} title]
   [:button.destroy {:on-click #(dispatch [:todos/remove (:id todo)])}]])

;; form-2
(defn todo-item [todo]
  (fn [todo]
     [todo-checkbox (:id todo) (:completed todo)]
     [:label {:unselectable "on"} title]
     [:button.destroy {:on-click #(dispatch [:todos/remove (:id todo)])}]]))

Game Development with Clojure/ClojureScript

This weekend it’s Ludum Dare again, the world’s longest running game jam. The idea is that, alone or with a team, you build a game in a weekend based on a certain theme.

We got a little team together here in Berlin, and so I’ve been reviewing what options there are for someone wanting to build a game in Clojure or Clojurescript.

The good news is there are plenty of options, as you’ll see from the list below. You can do desktop games, browser based games with canvas or webgl, and you can even create Unity 3D games, all from your comfortable Clojure parentheses.

Union Types with Clojure.Spec

Elm and other statically typed languages have a great feature called Union Types (also called Sum Types or Algebraic Data Types).

Here’s an example taken from Elm. Suppose your system used to represent users as integers, maybe just an auto-incrementing primary key, but then switched to UUIDs represented as strings.

To correctly model this situation, you need a way to create a type that can be either an integer or a string, that’s what union types give you.